Mathematical symbols are used to perform various operations. The symbols make it easier to refer Maths quantities. It is interesting to note that Mathematics is completely based on numbers and symbols. The math symbols not only refer to different quantities but also represent the relationship between two quantities. All mathematical symbols are mainly used to perform mathematical operations under various concepts. As we know, the concept of maths is purely dependent on numbers and symbols.
There are many symbols used in Maths that have some predefined values. To simplify the expressions, we can use those kinds of values instead of those symbols. Some of the examples are the pi symbol (π), which holds the value 22/7 or 3.17. The pi symbol is a mathematical constant which is defined as the ratio of circumference of a circle to its diameter. In Mathematics, pi symbol is also referred to as Archimedes constant. Also, esymbol in Maths which holds the value e= 2.718281828….This symbol is known as econstant or Euler’s constant. The table provided below has a list of all the common symbols in Maths with meaning and examples.
There are so many mathematical symbols that are very important to students. To understand this in an easier way, the list of mathematical symbols are noted here with definition and examples. There are numerous signs and symbols, ranging from the simple addition concept sign to the complex integration concept sign. Here, the list of mathematical symbols is provided in a tabular form, and those notations are categorized according to the concept.
List of Mathematical Symbols
 Basic Math Symbols
 Logic Symbols
 Calculus and Analysis Symbols
 Combinatorics Symbols
 Greek Alphabets
 Common Numeral Symbols
 Importance
 FAQs
Basic Mathematical Symbols With Name, Meaning and Examples
The basic mathematical symbols used in Maths help us to work with mathematical concepts in a theoretical manner. In simple words, without symbols, we cannot do maths. The mathematical signs and symbols are considered as representative of the value. The basic symbols in maths are used to express mathematical thoughts. The relationship between the sign and the value refers to the fundamental need of mathematics. With the help of symbols, certain concepts and ideas are clearly explained. Here is a list of commonly used mathematical symbols with names and meanings. Also, an example is provided to understand the usage of mathematical symbols.
Symbol  Symbol Name in Maths  Math Symbols Meaning  Example 

≠  not equal sign  inequality  10 ≠ 6 
=  equals sign  equality  3 = 1 + 2 
<  strict inequality  less than  7 < 10 
>  strict inequality  greater than  6 > 2 
≤  inequality  less than or equal to  x ≤ y, means, y = x or y > x, but not viceversa. 
≥  inequality  greater than or equal to  a ≥ b, means, a = b or a > b, but viceversa does not hold true. 
[ ]  brackets  calculate expression inside first  [ 2×5] + 7 = 17 
( )  parentheses  calculate expression inside first  3 × (3 + 7) = 30 
−  minus sign  subtraction  5 − 2 = 3 
+  plus sign  addition  4 + 5 = 9 
∓  minus – plus  both minus and plus operations  1 ∓ 4 = 3 and 5 
±  plus – minus  both plus and minus operations  5 ± 3 = 8 and 2 
×  times sign  multiplication  4 × 3 = 12 
*  asterisk  multiplication  2 * 3 = 6 
÷  division sign / obelus  division  15 ÷ 5 = 3 
∙  multiplication dot  multiplication  2 ∙ 3 = 6 
–  horizontal line  division / fraction  8/2 = 4 
/  division slash  division  6 ⁄ 2 = 3 
mod  modulo  remainder calculation  7 mod 3 = 1 
a^{b}  power  exponent  2^{4} = 16 
.  period  decimal point, decimal separator  4.36 = 4 +36/100 
√a  square root  √a · √a = a  √9 = ±3 
a^b  caret  exponent  2 ^ 3 = 8 
^{4}√a  fourth root  ^{4}√a ·^{4}√a · ^{4}√a · ^{4}√a = a  ^{4}√16= ± 2 
^{3}√a  cube root  ^{3}√a ·^{3}√a · ^{3}√a = a  ^{3}√343 = 7 
%  percent  1% = 1/100  10% × 30 = 3 
^{n}√a  nth root (radical)  ^{n}√a · ^{n}√a · · · n times = a  for n=3, ^{n}√8 = 2 
ppm  permillion  1 ppm = 1/1000000  10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 
‰  permille  1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%  10‰ × 30 = 0.3 
ppt  pertrillion  1ppt = 1012  10ppt × 30 = 3×1010 
ppb  perbillion  1 ppb = 1/1000000000  10 ppb × 30 = 3×107 
Maths Logic symbols With Meaning
Symbol  Symbol Name in Maths  Math Symbols Meaning  Example 

^  caret / circumflex  and  x ^ y 
·  and  and  x · y 
+  plus  or  x + y 
&  ampersand  and  x & y 
  vertical line  or  x  y 
∨  reversed caret  or  x ∨ y 
x  bar  not – negation  x 
x’  singlequote  not – negation  x’ 
!  Exclamation mark  not – negation  ! x 
¬  not  not – negation  ¬ x 
~  tilde  negation  ~ x 
⊕  circled plus / oplus  exclusive or – xor  x ⊕ y 
⇔  equivalent  if and only if (iff)  
⇒  implies  n/a  n/a 
∀  for all  n/a  n/a 
↔  equivalent  if and only if (iff)  n/a 
∄  there does not exist  n/a  n/a 
∃  there exists  n/a  n/a 
∵  because / since  n/a  n/a 
∴  therefore  n/a  n/a 
Calculus and Analysis Symbol Names in Maths
In calculus, we have come across different math symbols. All mathematical symbols with names and meanings are provided here. Go through the all mathematical symbols used in calculus.
Symbol  Symbol Name in Maths  Math Symbols Meaning  Example 

ε  epsilon  represents a very small number, nearzero  ε → 0 
lim_{x→a}  limit  limit value of a function  lim_{x→a}(3x+1)= 3 × a + 1 = 3a + 1 
y ‘  derivative  derivative – Lagrange’s notation  (5x^{3})’ = 15x^{2} 
e  e constant / Euler’s number  e = 2.718281828…  e = lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞ 
y(n)  nth derivative  n times derivation  nth derivative of 3x^{n} = 3 n (n1)(n2)….(2)(1)= 3n! 
y”  second derivative  derivative of derivative  (4x^{3})” = 24x 
d2ydx2  second derivative  derivative of derivative  d2dx2(6×3+x2+3x+1)=36x+1 
dy/dx  derivative  derivative – Leibniz’s notation  ddx(5x)=5 
dnydxn  nth derivative  n times derivation  n/a 
y¨=d2ydt2  Second derivative of time  derivative of derivative  n/a 
y˙  Single derivative of time  derivative by time – Newton’s notation  n/a 
D^{2}x  second derivative  derivative of derivative  n/a 
Dx  derivative  derivative – Euler’s notation  n/a 
∫  integral  opposite to derivation  n/a 
af(x,y)ax  partial derivative  ∂(x2+y2)/∂x = 2x  n/a 
∭  triple integral  integration of the function of 3 variables  n/a 
∬  double integral  integration of the function of 2 variables  n/a 
∯  closed surface integral  n/a  n/a 
∮  closed contour / line integral  n/a  n/a 
[a,b]  closed interval  [a,b] = {x  a ≤ x ≤ b}  n/a 
∰  closed volume integral  n/a  
(a,b)  open interval  (a,b) = {x  a < x < b}  n/a 
z*  complex conjugate  z = a+bi → z*=abi  z* = 3 + 2i 
i  imaginary unit  i ≡ √1  z = 3 + 2i 
∇  nabla / del  gradient / divergence operator  ∇f (x,y,z) 
z  complex conjugate  z = a+bi → z = abi  z = 3 + 2i 
x→  vector  V→=xi^+yj^+zk^  n/a 
x * y  convolution  y(t) = x(t) * h(t)  n/a 
∞  lemniscate  infinity symbol  n/a 
δ  delta function  n/a  n/a 

Combinatorics Symbols Used in Maths
The different Combinatorics symbols used in maths concern the study of the combination of finite discrete structures. Some of the most important combinatorics symbols used in maths are as follows:
Greek Alphabet Letters Used in Maths
Mathematicians frequently use Greek alphabets in their work to represent the variables, constants, functions and so on. Some of the commonly used Greek symbols name in Maths are listed below:
Greek Symbol  Greek Letter Name  English Equivalent  Pronunciation  

Upper Case 
Lower Case 

Β  β  Beta  b  beta 
Α  α  Alpha  a  alfa 
Δ  δ  Delta  d  delta 
Γ  γ  Gamma  g  gama 
Ζ  ζ  Zeta  z  zeta 
Ε  ε  Epsilon  e  epsilon 
Θ  θ  Theta  th  teta 
Η  η  Eta  h  ehta 
Κ  κ  Kappa  k  kapa 
Ι  ι  Iota  i  iota 
Μ  μ  Mu  m  myoo 
Λ  λ  Lambda  l  lamda 
Ξ  ξ  Xi  x  xee 
Ν  ν  Nu  n  noo 
Ο  ο  Omicron  o  omeecron 
Π  π  Pi  p  payee 
Σ  σ  Sigma  s  sigma 
Ρ  ρ  Rho  r  row 
Υ  υ  Upsilon  u  oopsilon 
Τ  τ  Tau  t  taoo 
Χ  χ  Chi  ch  khee 
Φ  φ  Phi  ph  fee 
Ω  ω  Omega  o  omega 
Ψ  ψ  Psi  ps  psee 
Common Numeral Symbols Used in Maths
The roman numerals are used in many applications and can be seen in our reallife activities. The common numeral symbols used in Maths are as follows.
Name  European  Roman  Hindu Arabic  Hebrew 

zero  0  n/a  0  n/a 
one  1  I  ١  א 
two  2  II  ٢  ב 
three  3  III  ٣  ג 
four  4  IV  ٤  ד 
five  5  V  ٥  ה 
six  6  VI  ٦  ו 
seven  7  VII  ٧  ז 
eight  8  VIII  ٨  ח 
nine  9  IX  ٩  ט 
ten  10  X  ١٠  י 
eleven  11  XI  ١١  יא 
twelve  12  XII  ١٢  יב 
thirteen  13  XIII  ١٣  יג 
fourteen  14  XIV  ١٤  יד 
fifteen  15  XV  ١٥  טו 
sixteen  16  XVI  ١٦  טז 
seventeen  17  XVII  ١٧  יז 
eighteen  18  XVIII  ١٨  יח 
nineteen  19  XIX  ١٩  יט 
twenty  20  XX  ٢٠  כ 
thirty  30  XXX  ٣٠  ל 
forty  40  XL  ٤٠  מ 
fifty  50  L  ٥٠  נ 
sixty  60  LX  ٦٠  ס 
seventy  70  LXX  ٧٠  ע 
eighty  80  LXXX  ٨٠  פ 
ninety  90  XC  ٩٠  צ 
one hundred  100  C  ١٠٠  ק 
These are some of the most important and commonly used symbols in mathematics. It is important to get completely acquainted with all the maths symbols to be able to solve maths problems efficiently. It should be noted that without knowing maths symbols, it is extremely difficult to grasp certain concepts on a universal scale. Some of the key importance of maths symbols are summarized below.
Importance of Mathematical Symbols
 Helps in denoting quantities
 Establishes relationships between quantities
 Helps to identify the type of operation
 Makes reference easier
 Maths symbols are universal and break the language barrier
Frequently Asked Questions on Math Symbols
What is pi symbol in Maths?
The pi symbol is a mathematical constant, which is approximately equal to 3.14. The symbol of pi is π and it is a Greek alphabet. Pi is an irrational number which is defined as the ratio of circle circumference to its diameter.
What is e symbol in mathematics?
The “e” symbol in maths represents Euler’s number which is approximately equal to 2.71828…It is considered as one of the most important numbers in mathematics. It is an irrational number and it cannot be represented as a simple fraction
Write down the symbols for basic arithmetic operations.
The symbols for basic arithmetic operations are addition (+), subtraction (), Multiplication (×), Division(÷).
Why do we use mathematical symbols?
Mathematics is a universal language and the basics of maths are the same everywhere in the universe. Mathematical symbols play a major role in this. The definition and the value of the symbols are constant. For example, the Roman letter X represents the value 10 everywhere around us.
Mention the logic symbols in maths.
The logic symbols in maths are:
AND (^)
OR (∨)
NOT (¬)
Implies (⇒)
Equivalent (⇔)
For all (∀)
There exists (∃)